• Introduction to Computer

    The term Computer is derived from the Latin word Computare which means to compute or to calculate.

  • Classification of Computer

    Analog Computer Hybrid Computer Digital Computer

  • Analog Computer

    An analog computer represents the data as physical quantities and operates on the data by manipulating the quantities. It is designed to process data in which the variable quantities vary continuously.

  • Digital Computer

    A digital computer is designed to process the data in numerical form, its circuits perform mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The numbers operated on by a digital computer are expressed in the binary system.

  • Hybrid Computer

    A hybrid is a combination of digital and analog computers. It combines the best features of both types of computers, i.e. It has the speed of an analog computer and the memory and accuracy of digital computer.

  • Micro Computer

    Micro Computer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its CPU. The invention of the microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the much cheaper microcomputers

  • Mini Computer

    Mini computers were designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching as it is distinct from calculation and record keeping.

  • Mainframe Computers

    Mainframe Computers is a powerful multi-user computer that can support thousand users simultaneously. Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds, i.e., hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive

  • Super Computer

    Super Computers are best in terms of processing capacity and also the most expensive one. An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions instructions per second.

  • Characteristics of Computer

    Computers have some important features which have made them so popular. A Computer can be categorized according to  Speed  Accuracy  Versatility  Reliability  Power of remembering  Diligence  Storage

  • Components of Computer System

    The computer is an electronic device that accepts (reads) data from the user and processes the data by performing calculations and operations on it, and generates (writes) the desired output. A computer consists of four major components such as  Input Devices (Input Unit)  CPU (Processing Unit)  Memory (Storage Unit)  Output Devices (Output Unit)

  • Input Unit

    An input device is a hardware or peripheral device used to send data to a computer. An input device allows users to communicate and feed instructions and data to computers for processing, display, storage and/or transmission.

  • CPU (Processing Unit)

    The CPU is the heart of the computer, it is the part of a computer which interprets and executes instruction.

  • Binary number system

    The binary number system is a numbering system that represents numeric values using two unique digits (0 and 1).

  • Decimal Number System

    The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system. The decimal number system has a base 10 as it uses 10 digits from 0 to 9.

  • ASCII Code

    ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.  ASCII character encoding provides a standard way to represent characters using numeric codes.

  • Unicode

    Unicode is a universal character encoding standard. It defines the way individual characters are represented in text files, web pages and other types of documents

  • What is CPU?

    CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer, it is a part of computer which interprets and executes instruction.

  • Arithmetic and Logical Unit

    The Arithmetic and Logic Unit performs arithmetic and logical operations. Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

  • Logic Unit

    Logic Unit performs following operations such as AND, OR, NOT, XOR, NOR, NAND, etc

  • Control Unit

    A Control Unit (CU) handles all processor control signals. It generates timing signals such that the coordination among devices take place

  • Booting

    Booting is the initialization of the computerized system. The booting process can be hard when electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on.

  • Primary memory

    Primary Memory is used for immediate access of data by the processor. Most computer systems around the world use primary memory. Primary memory can be divided into two types.  RAM (Random Access Memory)  ROM (Read Only Memory)

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)

    Random Access Memory is the central storage unit in a computer system. The information stored in the RAM is typically loaded from the computers hard disk, and includes data related to the operating system and certain applications.

  • Static RAM (SRAM)

    In SRAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a flip-flop. This is most expensive among other forms of RAMs, but is generally faster and requires less power than DRAM and, in modern computers, is often used as cache memory for the CPU.

  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

    Widely used in modern computers as primary memory, DRAM is slower than SRAM, but is inexpensive due to its one transistor-one capacitor paired assembly of memory storage.

  • ROM (Read Only Memory)

    ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The CPU can only fetch or read instructions from ROM. ROM comes with instructions permanently stored inside. And these instructions cannot be over-written by the computers CPU.

  • Types of ROM

     PROM " Programmable Read Only Memory  EPROM " Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory  EEPROM " Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

  • PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)

    PROM is a type of ROM that is programmed after the memory is constructed. While PROM cannot be erased, two other versions of PROM have been developed that can be erased and reprogrammed.

  • EPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

    EEPROM can be erased with an electrical charge and is used in flash memory.

  • Secondary Memory (Secondary Storage Device)

    Secondary Memory refers to storage devices, such as hard drives and Solid State Drives (SSD).It may also refer to removable storage media, such as USB flash drives, CDs, and DVDs.

  • Floppy disk

    These are small removable disks that are plastic coated with magnetic recording material. This portable storage device is a rewritable media and can be reused a number of times.

  • Hard disk drive

    Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters.

  • Optical disk

    An Optical disk is any storage media that hold content in digital format and is read using a laser assembly is considered as optical media.

  • Cache Memory

    A CPU cache is a cache used to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores the copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations.

  • Keyboard

    The keyboard looks like a typewriter. Most common and very popular input device is keyboard. The keyboard helps in inputting the data to the computer.

  • Function keys

    Keys that act as shortcuts for performing certain functions such as saving files or printing data. Function keys usually are lined along the top of the keyboard labeled F1 through F12.

  • Mouse

    Mouse is a pointing device which contains an optical in its base. The mouse is an input device (control station) for computers. The mouse is a device that allows you to control the movement of the insertion point on the screen.

  • Joystick

    A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction of the device it is controlling.

  • Scanner

    A scanner is an input device that scans any documents such as photographs and pages of text. Scanners are used to import a picture or document into the computer for sending or printing

  • Web Cam

    A webcam is a video camera that feeds its image to the computer. When the image is captured by the computer, the video stream may be saved or viewed or sent to other network via system such as the internet and email as an attachment.

  • Monitors

    A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers

  • Printers

    A printer is an electromechanical device which converts the text and graphical documents from electronic form to the physical form and it used to print information on paper.

  • Types of printer

    There are different types of printers and most commonly used printers are  Dot matrix printer  Inkjet printer  Laser printer

  • Dot matrix printer

    Dot Matrix Printer is a popular computer printer that prints text and graphics on the paper by using tiny dots to form the desired shapes.

  • Inkjet printer

    Inkjet printing is a type of computer printer that creates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.

  • Laser printer

    Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics by passing a laser beam over a charged drum to define a differentially charged image.

  • multimedia

    A media which combines different content forms of text, audio, video, animation, interactive features, still images to get a finished product is defined as multimedia.

  • Computer Software

    Computer software is also known as computer programs, is the non-tangible component of computers. Computer software contrasts with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers.

  • Types of Software

    Software are categorized into,  System Software  Application Software

  • System Software

    Systems software is a set of instructions that serves primarily as an intermediary between computer hardware and application programs, and may also be directly manipulated by knowledgeable users.

  • Operating System

    Operating System is an important system software found almost in all computers.Operating is defined as the program, that instructs the computer how to work with its various components.

  • Utility Programs

    Utility software is a type of system software designed to help analyze, config, optimize and maintain the computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool.

  • Application Software

    Application software is computer software, designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. They act as instructions which direct the hardware to perform specific functions.

  • Compiler

    Compiler is a program that translates one language (source program) as input and translates into an equivalent another language (target program).

  • Free Domain Software

    Free Domain Software is software that comes with permission for anyone to use, copy and distribute either original or with modifications either without charge or for fee

  • Window

    A window is simply a rectangular unit that acts independently from other windows. In a graphical user interface (GUI), the boundaries of the window can be easily expanded or contracted.